In a bowl, combine flour, baking powder, salt and pepper; set aside. Drain clams, reserving 2 tablespoons juice; set clams aside. In a small bowl, beat egg, milk and reserved clam juice; stir into dry ingredients just until moistened. Add the clams and onion. In an electric skillet or deep-fat fryer, heat oil to 350'. Drop batter by tablespoonfuls into oil. Fry for 2-3 minutes, turning occasionally, until golden brown. Drain on paper towels. Serve with tartar sauce and/or lemon if desired. Yield 14-16 fritters.