THE COOKERY BIBLE to almost everything you wanted to know about cooking.
By Peggi Anne Tebben cookiequeen
I have went through a few of my older & newer cookbooks & compiled a list of things that some of us already know & some we may not. These are dated from the early 1900's, to date.This is a good "Go To" List when you need that cooking question answered. This will particularly help some of the newer ones who, maybe don't know. None of the information contained here Is any thing I have written personally, but the experts have. I will update from time to time as more info comes in. Hope this helps you. Included in this recipe, if you will, are: HELPFUL HINTS,COOKERY METHODS & TERMS, GENERAL HOUSEHOLD HINTS, ABBREVIATIONS, OVEN TEMPERATURES, TERMS USED IN COOKING, FOOD PROCESSES, TABLE OF SUBSTITUTIONS, & FLOUR CONVERSIONS FROM WHITE TO WHEAT, EGG SUBSTITUTIONS & TIPS, YEAST CONVERSIONS, PLANTING SIGNS.
TOP OF RANGE
Soft ball Stage (Candy)....234°-240°
Crack Stage (Candy)....270°
Holding(warming closet)....Up to 200°
Slow....250° to 300°
Quick moderate ....375°
Hot....425° to 450°
Very Hot....475° to 500°
tsp. - teaspoon
Tbsp. - tablespoon
c. - cup
pt. - pint
qt. - quart
pk. - peck
bu. - bushel
dash - less than 1/8 teaspoon
3 teaspoons - 1 tablespoon
16 tablespoons - 1 cup
1 cup - 1/2 pint
2 cups -1 pint
oz. - ounce or ounces
Ib. - pound or pounds
sq. - square
min. - minute or minutes
hr. - hour or hours
mod. - moderate or moderately
doz. - dozen
2 pints (4 cups) - 1 quart
4 quarts (liquid) - 1 gallon
8 quarts (solid) - 1 peck
4 pecks - 1 bushel
16 ounces - 1 pound
If you want to measure part-cups by the tablespoon, remember:
4 tablespoons =1/4 cup
10 2/3 tablespoons = 2/3 cup
5 1/3 tablespoons = 1/3 cup
12 tablespoons =3/4 cup
8 tablespoons - 1/2 cup
14 tablespoons - 7/8 cup
*mess- Any measured amount of vegetables or meat necessary to serve a given number of people.
* Perch was 8 feet
*Chain was 66 feet
*Rod was 16.5 feet
*Peck was 1/4 bushel
*Wey was 4 bushels
*Firkin was 9 gallons
*Hogshead was 54 gallons
*Gill was 4 ounces
*Stone 14 pounds, still used in England today.
(This info provided by Coleen Sowa)
* 1 small egg= 1 1/2 oz. or 1/6 cup
* 1 medium egg= 1 3/4 oz. or 1/5 cup
* 1 large egg= 2 oz. or 1/4 cup
* 2 small eggs= 3 oz. or 1/3 cup
* 2 medium eggs= 3 1/2 oz. or 1/3 cup
* 2 large eggs= 4 oz. or 1/2 cup
* 3 medium eggs= 1/2 cup
* 3 large eggs= 2/3 cup
* EGG YOLK...2 yolks = 1 whole egg ( Can be used for baking but not for a pie crust or a sauce)
*EGG, WHOLE...1 egg = 2 egg yolks (For baking, 2 egg yolks + 1 Tabl. water.)
*4-1/2 cups shredded cabbage = 1 small head
*HERBS, FRESH...1 Tbsp. = 1 tsp. dried herbs
* LEMON JUICE... 1 Tbsp.= 1 Tbsp. distilled white vinegar
*MILK, SKIM...1 cup= 1/3 cup nonfat dry + 3/4 cup water.
*MILK, WHOLE...1 cup =1/2 cup evaporated + 1/2 cup water.
* MUSTARD, DRY...1 tsp. = 1 Tbsp. prepared.
*SOUR CREAM...1 cup = 3 Tbsp. butter + buttermilk or yogurt to equal 1 cup.
*SUGAR, BROWN...1 cup = 1 cup granulated
* SUGAR, GRANULATED... 1 CUP = 1 3/4 cup Confectioners' sugar (Do not substitute for baking)
*TOMATO JUICE...3 cups = 1 1/2 cups tomato sauce + 1 1/2 cups water or 1 can (6 oz.size) tomato paste + 3 cans water, dash salt & dash sugar.
*TOMATO SAUCE...1 cup + 1 can (3 oz. size)tomato paste + 1/2 cup water.
* YOGURT... 1 cup = 1 cup buttermilk.
*1 cup of honey= 3/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid or 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar.
*sq. unsweetened chocolate= 3 tbsp. cocoa.(If substituting in cake or cookie batter which originally called for chocolate, also add 1 tbsp. shortening for every 3 tbsp. cocoa.)
*1 tbsp. cornstarch (for thickening)= 2 tbsp. flour
*Substitute cream of tartar for an equal amount of lemon juice or vinegar. The amount for substitution should measure about 1/8 teaspoon per egg white.
*In the absence of cream of tartar, you may use baking powder to attain the texture you are looking for. Use 1 teaspoon baking powder, for every ½ teaspoon of cream of tartar, and every ¼ teaspoon of baking soda.
*1 c. sifted all-purpose flour = 1 c. plus 2 tbsp. sifted cake flour
*1c. sifted cake flour = 1 c. minus 2 tbsp. sifted all-purpose flour
*FOR EVERY 1 CUP OF SELF-RISING FLOUR NEEDED, COMBINE: 1 c. all-purpose flour 1 1/2 tsp baking powder & 1/2 tsp salt.
*1 tsp. baking powder = 1/4 tsp. baking soda plus l/2 tsp. cream of tartar
*1 c. bottled milk =1/2 c. evaporated milk plus 1/2 c. water
*1 c. sour milk = 1 c. sweet milk into which 1 tbsp. vinegar or lemon juice has been stirred; or 1 c. buttermilk
* If you don't have sour cream, or you want the recipe healthier, you can run the same amount of cottage cheese through a blender or food processor. You can also use this in place of mayonnaise.
• 1 egg = 2 Tbsp. potato starch
• 1 egg = 1/4 cup mashed potatoes
• 1 egg = 1/4 cup canned pumpkin or squash
• 1 egg = 1/4 cup puréed prunes
• 1 egg = 2 Tbsp. water + 1 Tbsp. oil + 2 tsp. baking powder
• 1 egg = 1 Tbsp. ground flax seed simmered in 3 Tbsp. water
• 1 egg white = 1 Tbsp. plain agar powder dissolved in 1 Tbsp. water, whipped, chilled, and whipped again
EGG REPLACEMENT TIPS:
• If a recipe calls for three or more eggs, it is important to choose a replacer that will perform the same function (i.e., binding or leavening).
• Trying to replicate airy baked goods that call for a lot of eggs, such as angel food cake, can be very difficult. Instead, look for a recipe with a similar taste but fewer eggs, which will be easier to replicate.
• When adding tofu to a recipe as an egg replacer, be sure to purée it first to avoid chunks in the finished product.
• Be sure to use plain tofu, not seasoned or baked, as a replacer.
• Powdered egg replacers cannot be used to create egg recipes such as scrambles or omelets. Tofu is the perfect substitute for eggs in these applications.
• If you want a lighter texture and you're using fruit purées as an egg substitute, add an extra 1/2 tsp. baking powder. Fruit purées tend to make the final product denser than the original recipe.
• If you're looking for an egg replacer that binds, try adding 2 to 3 Tbsp. of any of the following for each egg: tomato paste, potato starch, arrowroot powder, whole wheat flour, mashed potatoes, mashed sweet potatoes, instant potato flakes, or 1/4 cup tofu puréed with 1 Tbsp. flour.
(This info provided by Joan Hunt via peta.org)
1. Wash strawberries before hulling.
2. Drop peeled avocado or banana in lemon juice to prevent its turning dark.
3. When peeling citrus fruits or pineapple, do so over a bowl so as to catch the juices.
4. To ripen avocado or pineapple, place in a brown paper bag; seal and let stand in a warm, not hot, spot.
5. To store a ripe pineapple in a refrigerator, wrap well to prevent other foods from absorbing odor.
6. Be certain nut meats are fresh before using as they will spoil the flavor of baked products if at all rancid. Taste before using.
7. Dehydrated onion soup is excellent seasoning for stews, ground beef, etc.
8. Use undiluted consomme to baste poultry.
9. The volume of beaten egg whites is increased when eggs are at room temperature.
10. When preparing meringue for desserts, add two tablespoons flavored gelatin to a four-egg recipe for color and flavor.
11. Do not beat quick breads after adding dry ingredients, just stir.
12. Heavy cream doubles and often triples in volume when whipped.
13. One cup of raw rice becomes three when cooked.
14. Fresh tomatoes keep longer when placed with stem end down.
15. A boned or rolled roast requires ten more minutes cooking time per pound than one cooked with bones.
16. Meats cooked in liquid should be simmered slowly. Fast cooking causes meat to become stringy.
17. When roasting meat, do not prick with a fork; if necessary to turn it, use tongs.
18. To avoid worry when roasting, use a meat thermometer.
19. Liver loses its flavor if stored longer than 24 hours.
20. Do not separate slices before placing bacon in pan as they slide apart when warm.
21. To remove kernels from a cob of corn, place ear in the funnel of an angel food pan and shave down on the cob; kernels will fall in pan.
22. Cook cheese at a low temperature as it becomes stringy when subjected to high heat.
23. Do not freeze cheese. It becomes mealy.
24. To prevent steaks and chops from curling, slash through outside fat at
* If your brown sugar turns hard, place a slice of bread in with it for a few hours & it will soften up.
* If your soup is too salty, place a raw potato piece in the pot to absorb salty taste.
* If your soup is too greasy, drop a lettuce leaf in the pot. When the grease is absorbed, discard the lettuce leaf.
* Fresh tomatoes keep longer in the fridge if stored stem side down.
*Potato salad is best when made from potatoes cooked in their skins , then peeled & marinated while still warm.
*To peel tomatoes easily, spear it with a fork in the stem side & plunge into boiling water for 30 seconds. The skin slides right off.
*To core lettuce, smack it, head side down on the counter & then twist the core to pop it out.
*Add a small amount of hot, not boiling, milk to mashed potatoes to make them light & fluffy.
*To tenderize steaks, rub them in a mix of vinegar & oil then refrigerate for 2 hours.
* To store onions, wrap individually in foil to keep them from becoming soft or sprouting.
*For hamburgers in a hurry, poke a hole in the middle when shaping. The center will cook quickly & when they are done, the hole will be gone.
*Sprinkle salt in the bottom of a frying pan to keep food from sticking.
*To get a sluggish bottle of ketchup moving, push a drinking straw to the bottom of the bottle & remove. This will allow enough air in to start the ketchup flowing.
* To keep hard cheese fresh, cover with a cloth moistened in vinegar, or grate & store in tightly covered jar in fridge.
*Before measuring anything like honey, syrup, jelly or molasses, grease the measuring cup & it slides out easier.
• Rubbing alcohol will remove ball-point pen ink marks.
• Candles chilled for 24 hours in refrigerator will burn longer and not drip.
• Baking soda on a damp cloth will remove grime and grease from glass on oven door.
• Window cleaner will clean and polish exterior of appliances — stove, refrigerator — also small appliances, taps, etc.
• Mixture of half salt and half hot vinegar rubbed on brass will clean and polish.
• To re-smooth Teflon pans, boil for 5 to 10 minutes in the pan, a mixture of 1 cup water, 2 tablespoons baking soda, 1/2 cup liquid bleach. Wash in suds and rinse thoroughly. Then before using, wipe the surface with salad oil.
• To remove gum from hair, rub a plain chocolate bar in hair — then wash.
• A cloth wrung out of a solution of 1 tablespoon cornstarch dissolved in one quart of water, will make windows and mirrors sparkle.
• Cold tea, coffee grounds, or egg shells make a good fertilizer for house plants and act as insecticides, too.
• Try waxing your ashtrays. Ashes won't cling, odors won't linger and they can be wiped clean with a paper towel or disposable tissue. This saves daily washing.
• Stamp a few moth balls into the ground near flower beds to keep dogs away.
*The conversion of 1 cup of white flour to whole wheat is approximately 3/4 cup plus 2 Tablespoons of whole wheat flour.
*Now if you have 1 3/4 cup of white flour and wanting to convert it to whole wheat flour...this is a little more tricky.
*1 cup is 16 tablespoons; so 3/4 cup + 2 Tablespoons =14 Tablespoons or 7/8 of a cup (14 is 7/8 of 16)
*So, 1 3/4 cup = 28 Tablespoons; you want 7/8 of that or 24.5 Tablespoons.....24.5 Tablespoons = 1 1/2 cup + 1 1/2 teaspoons.
*Also, whole wheat produces denser baked goods than white, so you'll need to use less of it as shown above. Breads made with whole wheat flour do not rise as high because the bran in the whole wheat tears the elastic strands of gluten in the dough. This info is from Yahoo! answers...thought it would help those that wanted to use whole wheat in any of your bread recipes that call for white flour or baked goods. Hope this helps. It is good info to have on hand.
*For 1 packed tablespoon cake yeast use 2 teaspoons instant yeast or 2-1/2 teaspoons active dry.
*Yeast activity may decrease if it comes in direct contact with salt or sugar.
•Always use dry yeast at room temperature.
*Two ways to incorporate yeast into your dough:
1. Yeast can be added directly to dry ingredients.
•Use liquid temperatures of 120°F to 130°F for dry yeast.
•Use liquid temperatures of 90°F - 95°F for cake yeast.
2. Yeast can be dissolved in liquids before mixing with the rest of the dry ingredients.
*Rehydrating Dry Yeast before using gives it a "good start" - the yeast feeds on the sugar allowing it to become very active and ready to work in your dough.
•Water is recommended for dissolving yeast.
*Dissolve 1 tsp sugar in 1/2 cup 110°F-115°F water.
*Add up to 3 packets of yeast, depending on your recipe, to the sugar solution.
*Stir in yeast until completely dissolved.
•Let mixture stand until yeast begins to foam vigorously (5 - 10 minutes).
*Add mixture to remaining ingredients.
*Remember to decrease the total liquids in your recipe by 1/2 cup to adjust for the liquid used to dissolve the yeast.
*If the ratio of sugar to flour is more than 1/2 cup sugar to 4 cups flour, an additional packet of yeast (2+1/4 tsp) per recipe is needed. An excessive amount of sugar slows down yeast fermentation.
*If you have dry yeast & your recipe doesn't have any liquids: Dissolve the yeast in about 1/4 cup of warm tap water, 110°F-115°F, stir in 1/2 teaspoon of sugar to the water to give the yeast a good start. Since you will be adding the extra liquid, you may have to work in a small amount of additional flour to achieve the appropriate dough consistency.
*When changing your bread recipe from cake yeast to dry yeast, any of the dry yeast types (Active Dry Yeast, Instant Yeast or Bread Machine Yeast) may be substituted.
*Recently came across this on THE COOK'S THESAURUS on the internet on yeasts.
A new cast iron pot must be seasoned to insure best results when cooking. The steps to follow are very simple:
(1) Wash pot thoroughly and wipe dry.
(2) Place empty pot on burner and heat until extremely hot
(3) Carefully remove pot from burner and wipe inside of pot with cloth saturated with shortening.
(4) Place pot back on burner and heat until bottom of pot begins to smoke.
(5) Remove from heat and wipe with oil cloth thoroughly coating inside of pot. Set aside and allow to cool.
(6) After pot cools to a temperature that allows handling, wipe excess fat from pot with clean cloth. Now you are ready to begin cooking.
HOW TO CLEAN AN OLD BLACK POT
Extensive use of an iron pot will cause a crust to build up on the inside and outside of the pot. No amount of washing will prevent this build-up.
To clean follow this procedure:
(1) Wash pot as normal.
(2) Place empty pot in an open fire, fireplace, wood heater or in campfire. Allow pot to COOK until residue is burned away.
(3) HANDLE CAREFULLY — remove from fire and set aside, allowing slow cooling until pot is cool enough to hold.
(4) Use moist sand and cloth to scrub inside and outside of pot.
Your 20 year old pot will look the same as when it was new. Wash and season pot before using.
NOTE: I GOT THIS INFO FROM THE COOKBOOK-BIG MAMA'S OLD BLACK POT
*The time to plant corn is when doves begin to coo.
*If a wild wind blows from the south on February 14th, go ahead & plant corn. The crop will not freeze.
*Never plant on the first day of a New moon.
*Plant on "Bloom Day" & the harvest will be light. Plants will have more blooms & vines than fruits.
*Plant potatoes during the dark nights of March.
*If there is thunder at night in February, beware of a cold spell in April.
*Never plant when signs are in the heart or head.
These are "death signs"
*Potatoes planted when signs are in the feet will not be smooth, but will have little "toes" grow all over the potatoes.
*'POKE SALAD'..Pick when plants are young and tender. Do not eat poke after it has bloomed and has berries. Wash thoroughly. Put in pot with enough water to cover. Boil for 5 minutes. Drain and replace with hot boiling water. Boil for an additional 5 minutes.
* To have a great bumper crop of cucumbers, w/o bugs, "dip seeds into a small tin of kerosene, immediately take out and plant in hills; also, plant them on the longest day of the year (June 21), and you'll have a bumper crop". We tried this method and it really worked!! also have done it with zucchini and melon seeds and all worked just great! (This info came from a fellow JAP member- Jan Walker, who says this was from a friend of hers. I have never done this, so you be the judge.)
*TO CURE A COLD, drink juice from an onion that ahs been roasted in the ashes of wood from a live oak tree.
*Give a GROUCHY PERSON tea made from the root of a wild lilac.
*POKE ROOTS were used to make poultices to use on cuts & scratches.
*Eating RAW GARLIC cloves was good heart trouble.
*Tea made from boiled SASSAFRAS root was used to build blood.
*Rub a mixture of BUTTERMILK & salt water on a rash or poison ivy to stop the itching.
*If lost in the woods, remember, moss grows on the north side of a tree.
*Only six weeks until frost when Goldenrods bloom.
*When smoke hovers close to the ground, there will be a weather change.
*When birds & animals are excessively active throughout the day, a weather change for the worse is near.
*Stars inside ring around the moon indicate number of days before rain.
*When it clouds up on a frost, rain is in the near future.
*When spiders spin webs on a heavy dew, rain is on the way.
*When blackberry bloomsare heavy, the winter will be severe.
*When the katydid starts to sing, only 90 days until a heavy frost.
*The 12 days after Christmas will indicate the weather for each of the following months.
*The weather will be fair if a screech owl hoots.
*When the sun shines while raining, it will rain the following day at the same time.
*Red in the morning - sailors take warning. Red at night - sailors delight.
*When the wind blows from the West, the fish bite the best.
*When the wind blows from the East, fish bite the least.
*When the points of the moon hang down, it will rain within three days.
Knowing the amount of pectin in a juice helps
determine the quantity of sugar to use to each cup of
juice. We recommend two tests: the alcohol test and
the jelmeter test. Cool the juice before testing. When using processed jelly stock, strain again when
pouring from jar and test for pectin and acid.
*Alcohol Test - For the alcohol test, use 1 tablespoon of alcohol (wood or denatured) to 1 teaspoon of the fruit juice. Place the alcohol in a cup or glass and gently pour into this 1 teaspoon of the strained and cooled juice. Mix by gently moving from side to side. Let stand for one minute. Pour slowly into a saucer. If the pectin has formed a solid mass, it is safe to use 1 cup of sugar to 1 cup of juice. If it forms a good clot, but slightly broken at the edges, use 3/4 cup of sugar to 1 cup of juice. When the alcohol fails to cause any forming of pectin, it means that the juice
does not have enough pectin to make into jelly.
DON'T EVER TASTE THE TEST SAMPLES - THE MIXTURE IS POISONOUS.
*Jelmeter Test - If a jelmeter is available, you may wish to use it. The jelmeter is a graduated glass
tube with a small opening. To determine the amount of sugar to use to 1 cup of juice, cover the narrow end of the tube with your finger, then fill the tube to the brim with the cooled, strained juice. Remove your finger and allow the juice to run through the tube for one minute. The spot on the
tube where the juice has reached at the end of the
minute shows the amount of sugar to use.
*The key to good "PASTA" is to immerse them so gradually into boiling water as not to disturb the boiling point. One half pound of pasta calls for about 2 quarts of water seasoned with 2 teaspoons of salt and a little oil. The boiling point is maintained throughout until the pasta is done.
*CHEESE COOKERY :Rules to be remembered when cooking with cheese: High temperatures make it rubbery and tough, and its fine original flavor is dissipated. Therefore, whether baking or using cheese in top-of the-range dishes, slow, gentle heat is desired. No cheese dish should be baked at a higher temperature than 325° to 340° F., and temperatures between 300°
and 325° F, are the most satisfactory. Cheese that is to be cooked should be cut into thin slices, small pieces, shredded or grated so that it melts rapidly at low temperatures.
*A la king: Food heated in a rich white sauce, cream sauce or sherry-flavored sauce.
*A la mode: Literally, in the fashion, or manner of; this phrase is loosely used in American cookery; can mean food which has been soaked, and sometimes
cooked, in a marinade; also pie served with a heaping mound of ice cream on it; or any dessert having ice cream on top.
*Angelica... The candied leafstalk of a European herb used in decorating cakes, candies, desserts, etc.
*Antipasto... Italian for assorted appetizers of
fish, cold cuts, or vegetables.
*Appetizer: Food or beverage served before the first course of luncheon or dinner.
*Aspic: Almost any type of dish, except dessert, which has been thickened with gelatin, or coated with it. Formerly meant meat, chicken or fish stock, sometimes including bits of meat and vegetables, boiled down so that when cold it thickened with its own gelatin.
*Au beurre... With, or cooked in, butter.
*Au gratin... Food in a sauce, the top covered with bread crumbs and butter; or
cheese; or both crumbs and cheese, baked or broiled until a browned crust is
formed on top.
*Baba... A French cake, made with a yeast dough; and usually flavored with rum or fruit juice.
*Bake... To cook in oven heated to desired temperature. Called roasting when applied to meat.
*Barbecue... To roast meat, poultry or fish over coals or on a spit, basting frequently
with a highly seasoned sauce; to prepare such foods in a spicy sauce on the range or in the oven.
*Bar-le-duc... A jam originally made in Bar-leduc,
France, from currants and honey. The seeds were laboriously pushed out with a needle. Popularly made in the United States with the seeds left in.
*Baste: To moisten food while cooking, by spooning liquid or fat over surface. To pour liquid by spoonfuls over a food while it is cooking to keep it
from drying out and to add to its flavor; either liquid from the pan in which the food is cooking, or other liquid is used.
*Batter... A smooth mixture of flour, liquid and other ingredients that pours.A semi-liquid mixture of flour, liquid and other ingredients, to which
heat is to be applied.
*Beat... With a spoon, fork, whisk, rotary, or electric beater to introduce air throughout any food mixture; stirring in rapid, regular, round-and-round or over, under and over strokes with a spoon or beater.
*Beat with Spoon... A rapid lifting of a mixture over and over with a spoon, to continually bring under part to surface, and mix ingredients evenly.
*Beurre noir... Browned butter sauce.
*Bisque: A rich cream soup; formerly only shellfish cream soups were called bisques. Also frozen whipped cream or cream desserts.
*Blanch... To immerse food in boiling water for a brief time, then drain and rinse it in cold water immediately.
*Blend... To combine thoroughly.
*Boil... To cook in boiling liquid in which bubbles constantly rise to surface and break. At sea level water boils at 212° F. Once liquid boils, turn down heat. Slow boiling water is just as effective as rapid.
*BOILING POINT... The temperature reached when a mixture maintains a full bubbling motion on its surface.
*Bombe... A round or melon-shaped frozen dessert,
combining frozen mixtures.
*Borsch... The Ukrainian national soup . . . made
with beets or a variety of vegetables
*Bottled Condiment Sauce... Any one of the bottled meat sauces that is thin in consistency.
*Bottled Thick Condiment Sauce... Any one of the bottled meat sauces that is rather thick in consistency.
*Botulism... Poisoning by a bacillus which may infect preserved food, especially canned meat and vegetables. This toxin is destroyed in heat held at 212° F., for 5 minutes. After cooling, the high temperature is repeated once or twice.
*BOUILLABAISE...A chowder made from several varieties of fish and wine.
*Bouillon... A clear brown stock made by boiling meat with water & seasonings, or from commercilly prepared bouillon cubes. When served as soup it is called bouillon; combination stock (meat and poultry) is consomme; fish stock is called court bouillon. But there is no uniformity of practice in the use of these names.
*Braise... To brown meat or vegetables on all sides in a little hot fat, or oil. Then to add a little liquid, cover, and cook tender over low top stove heat or in a slow oven.
*Bread... To cover or coat food with bread crumbs; food which is breaded is
usually dipped in liquid first to make the crumbs stick.
*Bread crumbs... Fine or dry bread crumbs are made from dry bread or toast rolled or ground to a coarse powder. Soft bread crumbs are made by removing the crusts from bread, then cutting or breaking the central section into small bits.
*BREW... To cook in hot liquid until flavor is extracted.
*Brioche... A slightly sweetened French breakfast
*Broil... To cook under the heat of a broiler. To cook food by direct exposure to radiant heat, either live coals, flame or electric heating unit. The term is also used for pan-cooked food when no fat is added to the pan.
*Broth... Thin soup; or the liquid in which meat,poultry, fish or vegetables have been cooked.
*Brown... To give the outer surface of a food brown color by sauteing, frying, toasting, broiling or baking.
*Brush with Fat, etc... To cover lightly with fat, cream, slightly beaten egg white, etc., using a pastry brush or crumpled wax paper.
*Butter Balls... Scald and chill a pair of wooden butter paddles in ice water. Drop pieces of butter by heaping teaspoonfuls into the ice water. When cold, roll each piece lightly between the paddles to form a ball. To make cylinders, flatten the balls into cylinders between the paddles. Drop on a chilled plate or into ice water.
*Butter Curls... Dip butter curler in hot water each time it is used. Then, starting at far side of half pound or pound print of butter, draw curler lightly and rapidly towards you, making a thin shaving which curls; then drop in ice water until used.
*Butter Molds... Use fancy butter molds. Scald and chill them. Pack well with butter, level off with knife, press out and' chill.
*Cafe au lait... Coffee served with hot milk.
*Canape... An appetizer consisting of fried or toasted bread or... crisp crackers topped with seasoned spread of fish, meat, cheese or salad combination.
*Candy... To conserve or preserve by boiling with sugar. To incrust or coat with sugar.
*Capon... Castrated male chicken; large; tender meat.
*Caramelize... To melt sugar in a skillet over medium heat, stirring constantly, until it forms a golden brown syrup to flavor soups, vegetables and other dishes; also used in cakes, icings, candy and sauces.
*Caviar... Prepared and salted roe (eggs) of the
sturgeon and other large fish. Black or red, they are served as an appetizer.
*Chantilly... A dish in which whipped cream is one of the ingredients. Name derived from that of a castle north of Paris.
*Charlotte... A gelatin dessert containing flavored
whipped cream, molded in a form lined with sponge cake strips or lady fingers.
*Chicken-Curry Glace: Cream of Chicken Soup, curry powder, and milk.
*Chicory... A plant root that is cut into slices, dried and roasted into coffee. The plant leaves are used for salad & sometimes called curly endive.
*Chill... To place in refrigerator or other cold place until cold.
*Chop... To cut up into small pieces with a knife or in chopping bowl. Do not use food chopper.
*Chowder... A half-soup, half-stew of vegetables, fish or other foods.
*Cider... The juice from pressed apples used as a beverage or to make a vinegar.
*Chutney... A spicy, somewhat sweet relish, made from several fruits and vegetables. Originally from India.
*Clarify... To make a liquid clear by adding beaten egg white & egg shells. The egg coagulates in hot liquid & cloudiness adheres to it. The liquid is then strained.
*Clarify... To make liquids such as coffee or soups completely transparent by the addition of egg white or other agent; after several minutes heating the egg
white in the liquid, the white coagulates, collecting solids in it; this portion can be strained off, leaving a completely clear liquid.
*Coat... To cover entire surface with a given mixture. For example to dip food into Seasoned Flour, until evenly covered on all sides.
*Coatspoon... When a mixture forms a thin even film on the spoon.
*Cobbler... Form of deep fruit pie; may have top crust only or top and bottom crusts.
*Cocktail... Beverage, alcoholic or made of fruit or vegetable juices, served as appetizer before a meal; also a cup of chopped fruit, or of seafood dressed in
a tart sauce, served as first course.
*Coddle... To cook slowly and gently in a liquid just below the boiling point.
*Compote...(1) A stemmed dish.
(2) A "stew" of fruits cooked slowly in syrup, during which fruits have retained their natural shape.
*Condensed milk... Whole milk commercially
concentrated by evaporation, then sweetened.
*Condiment... Pungent substance such as catsup,
chutney, mustard to make food more appetizing. Seasonings such as salt, pepper, paprika, including spices and herbs; also used to refer to sauces such as Tabasco, Worcestershire, A-l and similar bottled seasonings.
*Confectioners' sugar... Finest form of cane sugar or beet sugar; used for frostings and confections. Do not confuse with powdered sugar which is coarser and not so sweet.
*Consomme... Clear soup made of meat and chicken, or as used today, any clear soup.
*Core... The fruit's core is the stem running through it surrounded by seeds. To core an apple or pear is to remove its core; the cylindrical knife for this purpose is called a corer.
*Cracklings... Crisp particles left after fat has been fried out.
*Cream... To work shortening with back of spoon until light and fluffy. Electric beater may be used.To soften fat by beating it with a spoon or beater until it can be whipped almost like very thick cream; also means to blend fat and sugar smoothly together.
*Creole... The addition of tomatoes, green peppers, spicy seasonings and sometimes chopped okra or corn to a sauce or dish; in the style of New Orleans cookery.
*Croquettes... Food, raw or cooked, hashed fine, held together by a thick sauce or egg, shaped into small forms (balls, cylinders, cones, cubes) and cooked in deep, hot fat.
*Croustade... A toast case.
*Croutons... Tiny cubes of bread fried in fat or toasted, and served as garnish on soups and other dishes.
*Cube... To cut in even sized pieces.
*Curry... A stew cooked or flavored with curry.
*Cut... To divide foods with a knife or scissors.
*Cut in... To work fat or shortening into flour or corn meal with the fingers, or with two knives or a pastry blender until the mixture has the texture of very coarse meal.
*Cut and fold... Usually applied to adding stiffly beaten egg whites to a liquid or other mixtures; the cutting is done by turning the spoon sidewise as it goes into the mixture, as one would cut with a knife. Folding means to lift the mixture from the bottom of the bowl, then fold it over the top portion, and repeat till the two mixtures are combined.
*Cutlet... A piece of meat from the leg or rib; also croquette mixture shaped like a chop or meat cutlet.
*Deep fat frying... To fry in a large kettle nearly full of liquid fat, which has been heated so that the food floated or immersed in it browns quickly.
*Demitasse... Literally half cup; the small cup of after-dinner coffee.
*Deviled... Highly spiced food.
*Dice... To cut in small cubes.
*Dissolve... To mix a dry substance with liquid until it is in solution.
*Dot...To scatter small bits, such as butter, over surface of food.
*Dough... A mixture of flour and liquid that is stiff enough to be kneaded.
*Draw... Used in reference to poultry, means to cut the fowl open and remove or draw out) the entrails.
*Dredge... To coat food such as meat by dipping it into and completely covering it with a fine, powdery mixture of flour and seasonings or seasoned crumbs;
or to sprinkle flour and other mixtures over a food; fruit is dredged in sugar or with sugar.
*Dressed...Referring to poultry, means that feathers, but not head, feet or entrails, have been removed; meaning varies in different markets and communities.
*Drippings... Fats and juices which cook out of beef, veal, pork, lamb, mutton or poultry while they roast or broil; fat left in frying pan where bacon or chops or other meat has cooked.
*Dry Ingredients... Such ingredients as flour, baking powder, soda, cream of tartar, salt, sugar, spices, etc.
*Eclair. Cream puff paste baked in oval shape filled with whipped cream or custard.
*Eggs, Slightly Beaten... Whole eggs beaten until yolks and whites are just blended.
*Eggs, Well-Beaten... Whole eggs beaten until light and frothy.
*Egg Whites, Stiffly Beaten... Beaten until they stand in peaks, when beater is lifted from their surface, but are still moist and glossy.
*Egg Yolfe, Well-Beaten... Beaten until thick and lemon colored.
*En brochefte... French term for cooked on a skewer.
*Entree... Today, the main dish of a simple meal; in more elaborate menus an interesting "made" dish served between soup and meat, or fish and meat or
with the meat or main course.
*Escallop... More usual term is scallop, meaning to bake any food with a sauce and topping of crumbs or crumbs and cheese; sometimes baked in a scallop shell or shell-shaped dish, hence the name.
*Espagnole...Spanish-style; similar to Creole in cookery since it often means the addition of tomatoes or tomato paste, onion and spicy seasonings.
*Evaporated milk... Whole milk from which 60% of its water has been evaporated.
*Eviscerate...To remove entrails of fowl or game.
*Fat...Butter, margarine, shortening, lard, oils, fat from fowl and meat.
*Filet mignon...Small, choice section of beef tenderloin, sometimes wrapped in bacon, and cooked by broiling.
*Fillet...A piece of chicken, fish or meat from which bones have been removed, or which originally contained no bones.
*Flake...To break into small sections or pieces with a fork or spoon.
*Flour, browned...Flour heated in an ungreased skillet over low heat until browned: stir to avoid burning.
*Fold In...Usually refers to addition of whipped cream, beaten egg white, etc. For example, in folding whipped cream into a gelatin mixture heap the whipped cream on top of the gelatin mixture. Then pass a whip or spoon down through mixture, then pass it across bottom, bring up some of the mixture and place it on top. Repeat until combined, working gently so as not to lose air beaten into cream.
*Fondant...A sugar mixture, smoothly mixed and kneaded, used as filling in candy.
*Fondue...Applied to baked cheese and crumb mixtures, or cheese and wine, rarebits, Swiss-style.
*Frapp'e...A mixture of fruit or juices frozen to a mush, but not solid; cordial or liqueur poured over cracked ice.
*French...Of lamb chops, to trim away the meat from the end of the bone. Of beef tenderloin, to flatten with a cleaver. Of green beans, to cut lengthwise into thin slivers. Of frying, to immerse food in deep, hot fat until the surface is browned.
*French fry...To cook in hot fat deep enough to float the food.
*Fricassee...To cook meat, poultry or game cut in small pieces, in liquid and fat.
*Fritters...Food covered with batter, or mixed with batter, and fried in deep, hot fat, or in a pan.
*Frizzle...To pan-fry until the edges curl.
*Fromage...French word for cheese.
*Frost...To spread icing or frosting over a cake, cookies or other foods.
*Frosting...A sugar that has been cooked and used to cover cakes & other foods.
*Fry...To cook in hot fat.
Suet'e or Pan-fry...To cook in small amount of fat, bacon fat or drippings in skillet.
Deep Fry...To cook in deep fry kettle in enough hot fat or salad oil to float food.
Shallow Fry...To cook, partially immersed, in 1" or 2" of hot fat or salad oil in skillet.
*Garnish...To add decorative color to a dish with parsley, fruit and other foods.
*Giblets...The heart, liver and gizzard of poultry.
*Ginger...An aromatic, pungent root sold fresh, dried or ground. May be used in pickles, preserves, ground May be used in pickles, preserves, cakes, cookies, puddings, soups, pot roasts.
*Glac'e...(1) Coated with a sugar syrup cooked to
the "crack" stage.
*Glaze...The shiny coat given to foods; glazed ham has a sugar-and-fat glaze or one of aspic or gelatin; glazed carrots are coated with sugar and butter.
*Goulash...A thick Hungarian beef or veal stew
flavored with vegetables and paprika.
*Grate...To rub on a grater and so produce particles, as in grated lemon rind, cheese, etc. To break or scrape foods into small pieces by rubbing them over a
utensil known as a grater or on various small grating devices.
*Grind...To put through food chopper using fine, medium or coarse blade.
*Gravy...Sauce made with the juices of meat, poultry or fish in the pan in which they cooked, with other added liquids and seasonings and possibly flour for
*Grease...To rub the inside surface of a dish with fat so that food put into the dish will not stick to the surface; to rub a baking pan or mold with oil or fat.
*Grill...To cook food on a wire or metal rack under or over open heat.
*Grits...Hulled and coarsely ground corn or
*Gumbo...(1)...West Indian plant, the okra, used
to flavor and thicken.
(2)...A soup usually thickened with okra.
*Heavy Cream...Cream of such fat content that it will whip.
*Herb bouquet...Combination of herbs.
*Hors d'oeuvre...The French version of appetizers, served before a meal: olives, celery, pickled beets, pickled mushrooms, sardines and other foods.
*Hot Buttered Soup: Seasoned butter dropped into soup just before serving.
*Hot Soup Cocktail: Tomato soup thinned out with bottled clam juice and spiked with Worcestershire sauce.
*Ice...A fruit juice mixture frozen until firm and smooth; to ice means to chill either in the refrigerator or on the ice; or the addition of ice to the food or drink itself. Also means to apply icing or frosting to a cake.
*Infusion...Tea, coffee, herbs, steeped by the addition of boiling water, which is poured off and served as a beverage.
*Irradiate...To add Vitamin D to foods by exposure to ultraviolet rays.
*a I'italienne...In the Italian style; garnished with Parmesan cheese or Italian tomato paste; or cooked in olive oil or all three.
*Jelly test...Dip a spoon into boiling jelly and let the juice run off the edge of the spoon. If it runs in two separate streams, the jelly is not done. When the last few drops run off the spoon in a single sheet rather than in two or more separate streams the jelly is done.
*Julienne...To cut into thin lengthwise strips.
*Junket...A dessert of milk coagulated by rennet,
sweetened, and flavored.
*Knead...Fold dough or mixture over on itself, then press down lightly with knuckles using a sort of rocking motion. Repeat until smooth and satiny.
*Lard..To lay strips of salt pork or bacon on top of or in gashes on sides of fish or meat to prevent dryness. Or to insert them into lean meat by using a *Larding needle...A larding needle is used or gashes are cut in the meat and the fat poked in; also pieces of fat laid on top of meat, poultry, game or fish to flavor and enrich the food as it cooks. Lard is the fat of pork.
*La Soupe...The name given the evening meal in parts of rural France today. The time for enjoying the steaming, savory contents of that smiling, simmering kettle. We have taken the word supper from this. But we have left behind the soup that made the meal.
*Leaven...To raise; some leavening agents are baking powder, soda, eggs.
*Leek...Onion-like bulb, but smaller, more pungent
*Legumes...Vegetables of the pea or pod family, including beans, lentils and peanuts.
*Light Cream...Thin or coffee cream.
*Liquor...The liquid in which food is packed, as oyster liquor, or the liquor from canned fruits; pot liquor is the liquid in which vegetables have been boiled, either alone or with meat. Term used for all alcoholic beverages.
*Lukewarm...A temperature about 100° to 110° F.
*Lyonnaise...Seasoned with onions, parsley.
*Macaroons...Small cakes made from egg whites, sugar, and almond paste or powdered almonds.
*Mac'edoine...A mixture of fruits or vegetables.
*Moitre d'hotel...(1)...A French term meaning "head steward or cook."
*Marguerite...A salty cracker covered with a
mixture of boiled frosting and nuts or coconut
. . . baked in the oven until browned.
*Marinade...An oil-acid mixture used to give flavor to meats or salads.
*Marinate...To cover food with any liquid to give it flavor. French dressing is often used to marinate vegetables and meat as is vinegar and lemon juice. Various seasonings may be added; fruit juices, wines, milk are used; the liquid in which a food is thus treated is called a marinade.
*Marjarom...May be used both green and dry for flavoring soups and ragouts, and in stuffing for all meats and fish.
*Melt...To liquefy by heat; melting is usually done at low heat.
*Meringue...A mixture of stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar; may be cooked or uncooked.
*Mignon...(1)...A French term meaning "favorite,
(2)...A meltingly tender cut of boneless tenderloin beef.
*Mince...To chop in very fine pieces.
*Minced Onion...Cut onion in half. Then cut the surface of one of the halves into tiny squares as deep as desired. While holding the onion half firmly on a cutting surface, slice off %" slices at a time—the minced onion dropping off as you slice.
*Minced Parsley...Use scissors to cut fine. Or lay on cutting surface, and while holding firmly with left hand, mince with sharp knife. Mince mint in same way.
*Minestrone...Italian for thick vegetable soup.
*Mix...To combine ingredients, as by stirring.
*Mocha...Coffee flavor; usually a mixture of coffee and chocolate.
*Monosodium glutamate...(MSG). A white crystalline
substance made from vegetable proteins.
Enhances natural flavor of foods.
*Mornay...A white sauce containing cheese.
*Mousse...Frozen mousse usually contains whipped cream and gelatin, is flavored with fruit, sweet sauces, wines or cordials and is frozen in a mold packed in ice; a cooked mousse such as ham mousse or fish mousse also contains gelatin and cream and is baked or steamed.
*Onion Juice...Cut onion in half, then scrape juice from center with edge of teaspoon. Wrap remaining onion in waxed paper.
*Oregano...Whole or ground, strong aromatic odor, used with tomato sauces, pizza and veal dishes.
*Pan-broil...To cook a food such as steak, uncovered, in ungreased or very lightly greased hot skillet, pouring off fat as it cooks out.
*Pan fry (Saut'e)...To cook in a frying pan with little fat; nearly the same as pan broil, although some fat is added for any pan frying.
*Parboil...To cook to near tenderness in boiling water; cooking is then usually completed by some other method.
*Pare...To remove outer covering by cutting with knife, as in case of an apple.
*Parfait...A smooth, rich ice cream containing eggs, frozen in small paper cups; or a tall dessert glass filled with syrup or fruit, ice cream and whipped
*Pasteurize...To apply below-boiling heat for a given time to a food to kill bacteria; used commercially for milk; used in the home in the preservation offruit juices and other foods.
*Pat'e: Paste usually of mashed, seasoned liver. *Pat'e de foie gras...Imported goose liver paste containing chopped truffles.
*Patty...A patty shell of puffed paste filled with
a creamed mixture of chicken, fish, etc.
*Peel...To pull off outer covering, as in case of a banana. To pare; also to remove skins of oranges, tangerines, etc., with the fingers; to skin tomatoes and other thin-skinned fruits and vegetables.
*Petits Fours...Small squares, rounds and fancy shapes of cake iced in colors.
*Pilau...Rice stewed with meat, poultry, or fish, spices, etc.
*Pipe...To force through a pastry tube; frostings, salad dressings or pureed vegetables are sometimes piped on other foods for decorative effect.
*Piquante...A sharp sauce.
*Pit...To remove pits or seeds from fruit.
*Poach...To cook food gently in a simmering liquid, so the food retains its shape.
*Polenta. Italian for a corn meal or farina mush to which cheese is often added.
*Pot au feu...It's the soup always simmering on the stove, into which the French housewife throws herbs, vegetable tag ends, and meat bones. All the flavors are extracted and blended during the long slow cooking while the kettle smiles and chuckles, but never laughs outright in a full rollick.
*Preheat...To turn on heat in oven and heat to desired temperature before putting in food to bake or roast.
*Punch...Beverage composed of fruit juices, tea. carbonated beverages; or any of these combined with liquor of alcoholic content.
*Puree...To force cooked food through a sieve, food mill, strainer or cheesecloth.
*Ragout...French for brown stew.
*Ramekin...Individual baking dish or casserole: formerly only of porcelain.
*Ravioli...Small shapes of Italian or noodle
paste spread with a meat or vegetable filling
folded over and poached in meat stock.
relish. A highly flavored food used with other
foods to stimulate appetite.
*Render...To heat any solid animal fat to melting point; also called "to try out."
*Rice..To force food through a ricer or coarse sieve; applied to mashed potatoes and other foods.
*Rissole...A savory meat mixture enclosed in
rich pastry and fried in deep fat.
*Roast...To cook by dry heat in an oven.
*Roe...Eggs of fish, usually cooked with the fish; caviar is sturgeon roe; shad roe is large enough to be cooked separately.
*Roll...(1)...To place on a board and spread thin
with a rolling pin.
(2)...A small shape made from a dough and baked.
*Roux...The paste which is the basis of all cream sauces, white sauces and gravies: it is made by blending melted fat and flour; in brown roux the flour is first browned in a hot pan.
*Salad Oil...A cooking oil made of cottonseed, corn or peanut oil. Excellent for sauteing, deep fat frying, salad dressings, etc.
*Salt. To season or cure with salt.
*Saut'e...To cook food in a pan containing a small amount of fat.
*Scald...To heat to just under boiling point. With milk, heat in double boiler until bubbles gather at sides and a skin forms over surface.
*Scallion or shallot...A bulbless onion.
*Scallop...To bake food in a casserole in layers with sauce. See escallop. Also a shellfish.
*Score...To make shallow slits or gashes in surface with knife, fork or other device. To cut halfway through; for example the fatty covering of ham is scored before baking; the outer rind of a cucumber is scored with a fork before slicing.
*Scrape...To remove outer skin or flesh of a vegetable or fruit, holding the knife
with blade at right angles against the food and moving it back and forth in a scraping, not a cutting, motion.
*Sear...To brown surface quickly with high heat, as in hot skillet or when roasting.
*Seasoned Flour...Flour mixed with salt and pepper in the proportions 1 c. flour to 1 tbsp. salt and 1/4 tsp. pepper.
*Sherbet...See Ice. White of egg or milk added to an ice mixture classes the ice as a sherbet.
*Shortening...Fat used for baking. Refers to such solid fats as butter, margarine, vegetable.
*Shred...To tear or cut in thin pieces or strips.
*Sift...To put through a flour sifter or fine sieve.
*Simmer...To cook in liquid just below boiling point,only an occasional bubble appears on the liquid's surface when it simmers; about 185° F. at sea level.
*Skewer...Long pin of metal or wood on which food is held while cooking; also smaller pins used to fasten pieces of meat or sections of poultry together while
*Skim...To remove fat or other material that floats on top of a liquid with a skimmer or spoon.
*Skimmed milk...Milk from which cream has been removed.
*Slice...To cut a thin, flat piece off and across
*Sliver...To cut or split in long, thin pieces.
*Soak...To immerse in liquid for a time.
*Souffle...A delicate baked custard containing
cheese, fruit, minced meat, or vegetables
. . . made light by stiffly beaten egg whites.
*Soup Nogs: Cream soups whipped with egg and milk. Serve cold or heat slowly over low heat.
*Soup on the Rocks: Clear Consomme poured over ice cubes in a low glass bowl.
*Soup Shakes: Cream soups whipped with milk and served chilled, garnished with sprig of mint or slice of cucumber.
*Spatula...Flexible, wide-bladed knife with a rounded end, used to loosen cakes, etc., after baking.
*Sponge...A batter made with yeast in it.
*Steam...To cook above, and surround by, steam rising from boiling water. Steamers usually contain a rack on which the pan or mold of food rests while it cooks in the steam.
*Steam-bake...To cook in the oven in a pan or baking dish set in another pan of water for steaming.
*Steep..To allow a solid substance to stand in liquid just below the boiling point, while color, flavor and other qualities are extracted from it; for example, tea leaves are steeped in boiled water in making tea; see Infusion.Stir: To blend ingredients with a circular motion.
*Sterilize...To destroy microorganisms by boiling
in water, by dry heat, or by steam.
*Stew...To cook slowly in a small amount of
liquid for a long time.
*Stir...To mix, with a spoon, by rotary motion.
*Stock...The liquid in which meat, chicken, fish or vegetables is cooked.
*Tamale'...A highly seasoned Mexican dish of ground meat, seasonings, cooked corn meal, beans, ripe olives, and fat, rolled in oiled cornhusks, steamed or boiled.
*Tarragon...Leaves have a hot, pungent taste. Valuable to use in all salads and sauces. Used to flavor vinegar.
*Timbale...An unsweetened custard combined with minced vegetable, chicken, or fish, molded and baked.
*Timbale case. A small shell fried on timbale iron.
*Toast...To brown in broiler or oven or in toaster.
*Toast Points...Made by cutting each slice of toast diagonally from one corner to opposite corner.
*Torte...A rich cake, usually made from crumbs,
eggs, and nuts . . . or a meringue baked in the form of a cake.
*Tortilla...A thin round Mexican cake . . . made
of corn meal and hot water and baked on a griddle. Mexican hot mixtures are often rolled in them.
*Toss...To mix with light strokes, usually by lifting with a fork or spoon.
*Truss...To fasten in position with skewers or twine, as to truss the legs and wings of a fowl for roasting.
*Try out...To fry bits of solid fat or fat meat until fat is separated from membrane as in case of salt pork.
*Until set...Until a liquid has become firm . . .
often refers to a gelatin or custard mixture.
*Vichyssoise: Cream of Chicken Soup, onion, butter, potatoes, salt, pepper, water, light cream, milk, and chives.
*Whip...To beat rapidly, usually with hand or electric beater or wire whisk to incorporate air.
*Whole Milk: Milk from which the cream has not been remove...
*XXXX sugar...See Confectioners' sugar.
*Zwieback. A kind of toasted biscuits or rusk.
*Jelly, mayonnaise, and salad dressing (When used as a spread they soak into the bread, making it soggy.)
*Hard-cooked egg whites, Lettuce, celery, tomatoes, carrots
*Each nation has its own special soups, rich in chunks of meat, hearty with vegetables and barley, rice, or macaroni. Such soups have long been celebrated in song and story. Some even as cures for various ailments, like the soup called "Restaurant" which was popular in 16th Century France. People believed it had "restorative" powers. A chef printed the name over his door to tell all that he was serving it. In time, "restaurant" came to mean a place where all kinds of foods were served.
*THREE RULES FOR GOOD SOUP STOCK...
1. Good bones—a beef shin for brown stock, a veal knuckle or chicken for white stock. Two-thirds meat, one-third bone.
2. A big kettle with a tight lid.
3. Long, slow cooking. The test of good soup stock—when cool, it jells.
*For a cream soup that is light and fluffy like
whipped cream, use an electric blender at end.
Use 2 tbsp. flour with starchy vegetables; 3
tbsp. flour with non-starchy vegetables.
*ARTICHOKES...(French or Globe) Adventures in food are fun, and artichokes are a real adventure. There is a little trick to eating them but that, too, is part of the fun.
*ASPARAGUS...From the volcanic slopes of Mount Vesuvius in Italy came the first tender stalks. Charles Lamb thought this "vegetable orchid" brought gentle thoughts. And Madam DuBarry inspired Louis XV of France to create the first asparagus omelet.
*BEANS...(Green or Wax) String beans go back to ancient Roman times. The Indians grew them when Miles
Standish courted Priscilla. Now, through the miracle of modern times, they are mostiy stringless.
*BEANS...(Green Lima) Indians planted them with corn to choke out the weeds; then taught the Pilgrims to make Succotash, the first truly American dish.
*BEETS...The name Beef comes from the Greeks. When they paid homage to Apollo, they served him beet roots on a silver platter.
*BROCCOLI...Sometimes called Italian Asparagus, broccoli was known to the Romans before Pompeii. It is best when cooked quickly and "on ifs feet," like asparagus.
*BRUSSELS SPROUTS... Known as Tom Thumb Cabbages during the days of that famous c/rcus midget, these
miniature cabbages grew first in Brussels, Belgium.
*CABBAGE...Many people don't know how delicious cabbage can be. For the most appetizing flavor, texture and color, it must be cooked briefly and quickly.
*CARROTS... They don't make your hair curl, but do help protect your health. Formerly raised as fodder . . . now a colorful addition to our meals.
*CAULIFLOWER...Queen of (he cabbage family. For delicate flavor, treat gently. Cook quickly!
*CELERY...Dutch gardeners of Kalamozoo, Michigan, grew it first in America and sold it on the trains that passed through town.
*CORN...Surrounded by mystery and legend, American Indians believed it was the gift of the Great Spirit. Though known in other countries, corn is still typically American.
*CUCUMBERS...Ancient Chinese and Romans ate them three hundred years ago; one Roman emperor had them on his table ever day of the year. Usually eaten raw, they are delicious cooked.
*EGGPLANT...The Ancients called it "mad apple" because they thought it was poisonous. Its delicate flavor blends well with herbs and other vegetables.
*GREENS...Great grandmother never heard of vitamins, but she knew that greens were good for her family. So she gathered the wild greens and planted the seeds of many others.
*KOHLRABI...Sometimes called an educated turnip. The small ones are more tender and delicate in flavor.
*MUSHROOMS...Once called "food of the gods" by ancient Egyptians, mushrooms were believed to have magic powers because they grew overnight. They are so tender that a few minutes of cooking is enough.
*OKRA...A southern belle in the vegetable kingdom. Fried, it tastes surprisingly like oysters.
*ONIONS...Related to the lily, it is quite a family. Egyptian laborers building the pyramids ate onions for strength, soldiers ate them for courage.
*PARSNIPS...An old gardening book says "parsnips are not sweet 'til bit by frost." That is because frost changes the starch to sugar which greatly improves the taste.
*PEAS...(Green) One of the most popular of all vegetables. They are not only delicious to eat, but a bright, refreshing color contrast on the dinner plate.
*POTATOES...(White) Though we call them Irish, they come from Peru where, instead of being cooked, they were cured by frost and then dried. How we cook them dozens of ways and eat them almost every day.
*SQUASH...The Northern American Indians called it "Askulasquash." We have many names for the dozen or more varieties grown now.
*SUMMER SQUASH...Skins are soft.
*WINTER SQUASH...Skins are hard.
*TOMATOES...Once known as "love apples" and considered poisonous. Coll it "tomay-to" or "tomoh-to," the tomato is still one of the best liked of all our vegetables.
*TURNIPS AND RUTABAGAS...Yellow they are rutabagas; white they are turnips, a little more delicate
in flavor. Both are cooked and served the same way.