In a large skillet, heat four cups of water to boiling. Add the noodles and cook until tender, 1 to 2 minutes. Use tongs to remove them and place in a colander. Rinse with cool water.
Once the water returns to a boil, add the broccoli and cook until tender crisp, 3 minutes. Pour into another colander, toss with green onions and season with salt and pepper.
To the skillet, add 1 tablespoon water and sugar. Heat over medium high heat to dissolve the sugar. It will be an amber color. Stir in oil, garlic, and red pepper flakes. Stir. Add fish sauce and shrimp, stirring 2 to 3 minutes until the shrimp is opaque.
Remove from heat, stir in cilantro and season with pepper. Divide the noodles and broccoli among serving plates. Spoon shrimp and sauce over top.