Place the poblano chiles directly on a gas flame or under the broiler, turning occasionally, until blackened. Put the charred chiles in a paper sack or bowl covered with plastic wrap to steam. Once cool enough to handle, rub off the skin, remove the stem and seeds, and dice the chiles.
Preheat the oven to 350.
Heat an oven-safe pan (preferably cast iron) over medium heat and add the oil. Once hot, cook the chorizo until brown, about 8-10 minutes. With a slotted spatula, remove the chorizo and place on paper towels to drain. Drain any excess grease from the skillet, leaving about 1 teaspoon. Add the onions and jalapeños to the skillet and continue cooking on medium-low heat until onions are translucent, about 5 minutes. Add the garlic and cook for 30 more seconds.
Remove the skillet from the heat and add the diced poblano chiles, cooked chorizo, hominy, sour cream, cumin, cayenne, cilantro, lime juice and half of the cheddar cheese. Stir until well combined, taste and add salt and black pepper and adjust seasonings. Top with remaining the cheddar cheese and bake uncovered for 30 minutes or until brown and bubbling. Top with green onions, if desired.