For crust: Pulse flour, almonds, sugar and salt in a food processor, using about 10 one-second pulses, until combined. With the motor running, add butter, a few pieces at a time, until combined. Add egg yolk and vanilla and process until evenly combined (mix will look like wet sand). Pat the crust into the bottom of a 9-inch springform pan and about 1 inch up the sides.
For filling: Wipe out the food processor. Add egg, cream cheese, sugar and vanilla; process until smooth. Spread into the crust.
For topping: Toss apples, sugar and cinnamon in a bowl until combined. Spoon over the filling, pressing gently. Top with almonds.
Bake in a preheated 400º oven for 15 minutes.
Reduce oven temp to 350º. Continue baking until set around edges and just a bit jiggly in the center, 20 to 25 minutes more.
Cool on wire rack for 15 minutes. Run a knife around the edges, remove the pan sides and let cool completely for about an hour. Refrigerate until cold, from 2 to 8 hours, before serving.