Melt butter in a 9- or 10-in. ovenproof skillet. Add brown sugar; mix well until sugar is melted. Drain pineapple, reserving 1/3 cup juice. Arrange about 8 pineapple slices in a single layer over sugar (refrigerate the remaining lices for another use). Place cherries in center of ineapple slices; set aside.
In a large bowl, beat egg yolks until thick and lemon-colored. Gradually add sugar, beating well. Blend in vanilla and reserved pineapple juice. Combine the flour, baking powder and salt; gradually add to batter and mix well.
In a small bowl, beat egg whites on high speed until stiff peaks form; fold into batter. Spoon into skillet. Bake at 375° for 30-35 minutes or until a toothpick inserted near the center comes out clean. Let stand for 10 minutes before inverting onto serving plate.